The Montessori Method as an Alternative to ABA for Autistic Children
Traditional educational settings can be stressful and challenging for autistic children and young adults. The required conformity, inflexible routines, and social expectations of a traditional classroom can cause distress and hamper learning, development, and enthusiasm for a neurodivergent child.
For many autistic children, ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) is often the first recommended suggestion after diagnosis. ABA, along with other therapies, is utilized by practitioners to make an autistic child learn neurotypical facial expressions, body language, and social skills which won’t come naturally to them.
Many believe that this manipulation of the child is an unacceptable attempt to “normalize” their behavior and make it more socially palatable to their neurotypical peers.
While ABA breaks tasks into small steps, with rewards given for each achievement, parents raise doubts about how useful these skills are in the real world and whether children could transfer what they’d learned with a therapist to a natural environment. For example, a child might know when to look a therapist in the eye at the table, especially with prompts and a reward, but still not know what to do in a social situation as these situations often change and are not scripted.
Furthermore, the aversive training parts of ABA therapy rightly attract criticism. The idea of punishing children for perceived ‘bad’ behaviors such as hand-flapping, vocal sounds, and other types of stimming is hard to stomach. Parents want the best for their children, but what does that look like for each child?
Maria Montessori, a respected expert on child development, founded the Montessori curriculum. The ethos is that every child goes through a unique development process and is a unique individual who can learn in line with their own capacity, whether autistic or not. This belief, that knowledge requires more than simple memorization of educational material, underpins the curriculum.
Montessori insisted that knowledge should be made specific enough so that any child of any age can understand and learn, which led to the development of the method and series of materials that can be integrated into the classroom setting.
The Montessori curriculum differs from the mainstream curriculum which focuses on children learning the same thing, at the same time, in the same way. It emphasizes learning as a process that cannot be determined by a child’s age. Instead, learning is determined by the rate and speed at which a child can acquire one skill before moving on to the next. It is common to see mixed-age groupings in Montessori classrooms, where a 2-year-old may be in the same classroom setting as a 4-year-old, based on their developmental ability. This approach is ideal for many autistic children as it allows them to learn and develop at their own pace in a supportive and unpressured environment.
Many aspects of a Montessori education may benefit autistic children more than neurotypical children, starting with the interactive, sensory-utilizing, and calm method of learning. The prepared environment of the Montessori classroom provides a consistent, unchanging, and safe environment where children can benefit from watching other children choose and participate in activities before they get involved themselves.
This is very important for autistic children as they prefer to observe many times before they make their own attempt. In the Montessori classroom, this is not only acceptable but encouraged, and children will never be forced into an activity.
Currently, there are over 4,000 Montessori schools across the USA who adopt the main principles of Montessori education and, most importantly, ensure all children are respected for their individuality. An effective teacher in the Montessori classroom serves more as a guide, whose responsibility is to observe children choosing their work and to identify what motivates them.
The Association Montessori International website is an excellent resource, listing infancy, primary, and elementary providers who meet the rigorous requirements. Getting local recommendations and visiting providers is essential before making any decisions; parents know their child best, after all.
If there is not an appropriate provider nearby, the Montessori curriculum is simple to implement at home. There is a wealth of information available online, and many resources, but there are key areas to focus on.
For example, the organization of the environment allows the child access to toys that are stored at an appropriate height and accessible to them, and toys and books can be rotated to keep the child interested. Emphasizing life skills and allowing the child to help and be involved in daily tasks, from self-care to feeding is another important area. Teaching concentration and keeping the focus on inner motivation, not rewards, are the other main areas to follow.
There is a degree to which children have to be self-motivated to learn, and it will not be suitable for all autistic children, but it represents a genuine option for parents who feel that they want a different outlook and a fresh approach.
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Ashley teaches her two daughters (both presumed neurotypical) at home using the Montessori Method.
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